Avascan Introduces Avalanche Explorer and Developer APIs

Avascan introduced a new explorer for the Avalanche network along with APIs for developers.

Avascan Avalanche Explorer Logo
Image by Avascan

The explorer enables browsing of transactions, addresses, assets, blockchains, validators, and delegators.

Avascan also provides APIs for developers to build apps that retrieve information from the Avalanche platform. An API playground allows developers to run queries and test the APIs.

While the explorer lets you view basic information about all the blockchains built on Avalanche, Avascan currently only fully indexes the X-Chain.

The explorer also shows interesting statistics such as the circulating and locked AVAX supply, transactions per second on the X-Chain, staking reward per year, staking ratio, and burned fees. Avascan is working on a visualization for the supply unlocking schedule.

As the Avalanche mainnet is not expected to launch until the end of August, the explorer and APIs currently provide data for the testnet.

The privacy oriented Avascan website does not use cookies or third party trackers.

AVA Labs also provides their own separate explorer for the Avalanche network.


Recap: Avalanche AMA on CryptoDiffer

CryptoDiffer hosted an Avalanche “Ask Me Anything” (AMA) event on Telegram on Friday, August 7 from 10 a.m. to 11 a.m. EDT.

The AMA was held in conjunction with Sperax, a financial public blockchain. For brevity, only the questions and answers pertaining to Avalanche are included in this recap. Some questions were edited slightly for clarity.


Nick (CryptoDiffer): Hello, everyone!😁

We are glad to meet here
Frida Cai (Sperax Global Strategic Partner) @FridaCai_Sperax
Joe Yu (Sperax Senior Researcher) @yuzhou87
Stephen Buttolph (Avalanche Software Engineer) @StephenTechSupport
Collin Cusce (Avalanche Senior Software Engineer) @hellmichigan
Jay Karahashi-Sofue (Avalanche VP of Marketing) @jayksofue

Can you introduce yourself to the community?

Jay Karahashi-Sofue: Avalanche is a highly-scalable, open-source platform for launching decentralized applications. Developers who build on Avalanche can easily create powerful, reliable, and secure applications and custom blockchain networks with complex rulesets or build on existing private or public subnets. Ava Labs is the company building Avalanche.

Many blockchain projects often build on their own chain and attract users, so why should people choose Avalanche to be their platform?

Jay Karahashi-Sofue: Avalanche will provide developers/projects looking to build decentralized applications with better performance and scalability; in the early stages of Avalanche, we’re engaging with mature ecosystem partners (e.g., dev tooling, dapps, etc.) to make our ecosystem more appealing to new devs in the future. Our immediate focus is decentralized finance.

We’re also minimizing friction for devs who are already in the decentralized space with our C-Chain. Currently, the C-Chain runs the Ethereum Virtual Machine so any dev who is comfortable with Ethereum (or Solidity, more specifically) can come over to Avalanche to try out the platform with minimal barriers to entry.

Hell Michigan: We are fully decentralized with the potential to achieve millions of participants, just like Nakamoto, but at TPS not-yet-seen in open permissionless consensus networks. In Nakamoto there’s a long wait for confirmations with Bitcoin taking up to an hour to receive enough confirmations to feel confident your transaction has made it to the cannonical chain. With Avalanche it’s immediate, requiring no confirmations. In fact, transaction average a finalization time in under 1 second. We had 4500+ TPS and in our earlier, lighter-weight implementations, we reached nearly 8k TPS without any hokey tricks to boost those numbers. Avalanche consensus is fully-decentralized consensus which runs at twice the transaction processing speed that Visa does on an average day. In one day, we can do 2x the transaction Bitcoin does in a year.

And we’re backed with the scientific rigor to prove it. Heck the fastest Classical consensus protocol, Hotstuff, was what Facebook’s Libra was going to use… yea that was authored by Ted Yin, co-founder of Ava Labs.

You can create your own VMs, so you’re not bound to just the EVM or just Move or just Pact. You’re able to create entirely new VMs of your own design, tailored to your needs. The consensus is completely divorced from the state machine!

We’re in an entirely other category and operate at an entirely new level. We’re not simply 10x over the previous work, we’re 100x.

That’s why people will choose Avalanche.

How does Avalanche Consensus work and what are its advantages compared to Classical and Nakamoto Consensus?

Stephen Buttolph: Collin Recently posted a nice article about this on medium (

However, the main idea is to utilize sampling to get statistical approximations of the preferences of the network. By performing repeated network polls, the nodes can adjust their preferences to be in line with the rest of the network.

This process is extremely powerful, because after just a handful of rounds, the network will have converged to a unanimous preference. Because Avalanche also has a way of tracking when this unanimous preference is established (through the same polling mechanism), Avalanche can be used to achieve consensus with an extremely small number of messages.

Communication complexity

Hell Michigan, in response to a Sperax answer: Avalanche consensus is O(1), fyi

Hell Michigan: here’s a high-level explanation of Avalanche for those interested:

In some leader-ful protocols such as Tendermint or HyperLedger Fabric, there is single choke-point through which all transactions have to flow. But Avalanche doesn’t have this, so could you explain to me why Avalanche protocol is absolutely leaderless?

Stephen Buttolph: This raises an interesting point. In a non-sharded consensus system, all nodes will need to receive all transactions. However, the process that must be performed to finalize the transactions is a little more complex. Protocols like Tendermint and Hotstuff introduce a choke point for every block. So, the leader will need to receive a message from every other node in the network for every block.

In Avalanche, there are no special roles between nodes. Every node only performs a small sample of the network. It is possible to introduce block producers into Avalanche, and still maintain this property. But right now there are no special roles in the Avalanche network. That’s why Avalanche is leaderless.

Consensus efficiency

Hell Michigan, in response to a Sperax answer: @FridaCai_Sperax “the current consensus that we are using is the most efficient among BFT-based consensus.” — you’re not using Avalanche so I disagree, but if you mean classical consensus, that’s HotStuff and the first author on that paper is our Co-founder Ted Yin.

While testing digital currencies in sandbox environments is extremely insufficient, what do you attribute the incredible increase of the DeFi market?

Jay Karahashi-Sofue: I think both approaches are reasonable. A sandbox environment can ensure steady success without getting in too much of a clash with regulators, while an open one without a sandbox can lead to incredible growth but also could lead to cases (in regards to DeFi) where retail gets burned due to lack of knowledge of the technology

Asynchronous network models

Hell Michigan, in response to a Sperax answer: Casper is partially asynchronous. Partially asynchronous is the most practical and the most analyzed model in academia. HotStuff? Tendermint? PBFT? All partially asynchronous.

You recently announced an integration with Chainlink. What benefits does this integration offer developers?

Jay Karahashi-Sofue: This integration allows for developers building on Avalanche to leverage the benefits of oracles; if you don’t know what oracles are, they enable real-time, outside data to interact with blockchain. Avalanche is continuously trying to grow its ecosystem to provide devs more tools and apps to use within their own projects.

Will Avalanche help Sperax in its exploration to DeFi?

Jay Karahashi-Sofue: We’re always open to collaborating with projects within the decentralized ecosystem and outside as well; in addition to building out our ecosystem with leading decentralized finance projects, we’re also engaging companies and institutions from the traditional finance and enterprise world.

Could you explain the efficiency of the Avalanche consensus protocol? Classical consensus requires every node to talk every other node. Nakamoto consensus requires running giant lotteries. How about Avalanche?

Jay Karahashi-Sofue: Collin (@hellmichigan) wrote a really great post that covers exactly this:

Many projects lie or do some really dumb tricks to report high TPS. What is your target for TPS that Avalanche expects?

Stephen Buttolph: On the Avalanche platform we’ve been focusing on implementing additional features lately. So I don’t really have a recent benchmark number to give you. Once things have stabilized we’ll focus back on TPS benchmarks. Our last benchmark on a large deployment (~1k nodes) was around 4500 TPS using single input two output transactions.

Avalanche is the 3rd generation of the main protocol. It will improve sideways by removing the missing aspects Classical and Nakamoto Consensus protocol, so do cryptocurrency ecosystem and Avalanche blockchain really change radically?

Hell Michigan: Ya I think it drastically will. Things like a decentralized Venmo were relegated to risky and often-broken Layer 2 solutions. No longer the case thanks to Avalanche and this can occur on Layer 1. There’s also the ad hoc creation of assets that Avalanche offers on a base transaction level which should be a huge improvement over ERC 20s. In addition, you can deal with these assets in any way you please. Thanks to custom VMs, you’re no longer stuck to one [way] of doing things like with Ethereum. You can use any VMs you want, and they all can pull from the same validator set that is used in the default network. The ability to float assets between chains and subnets is also going to change the way the world treats crypto.

Where can i buy Avalanche?

Jay Karahashi-Sofue: Avalanche is not available yet; once mainnet is launched (some time this month TBD), we will look to have AVAX available on exchanges. Until then, please follow our social channels for those updates.

Thank you for joining us today!

Nicolas Lemaitre: [Dabbing slide GIF]


Emin Gün Sirer and Haipo Yang Livestream Recap

Emin Gün Sirer, co-founder and CEO of AVA Labs, participated in a livestream with Haipo Yang on August 5, 2020. Haipo Yang is the founder and CEO of the cryptocurrency exchange CoinEx and the mining pool ViaBTC.

Emin Gün Sirer and Haipo Yang Livestream Profile Photos
Image from Satoshi’s Angels

Cindy Wang, co-founder of Satoshi’s Angels, moderated the event and served as translator between Emin, Haipo, and the audience.

In July, CoinEx announced plans to support AVAX trading after the Avalanche mainnet launches.

The following recap provides an overview of the livestream discussion (not direct quotes):

Cindy: Thank you for the joining the Bihu livestream.

Emin: Thank you for having me.

Cindy: Hello Professor Emin, would you like to introduce yourself to the audience?

Emin: Professor at Cornell for 20 years. Area of expertise is distributed systems. In 2002, invented a system called Karma. First cryptocurrency where minting was done with proof-of-work. Far before Bitcoin, but too ahead of its time.

Discovered selfish mining in Bitcoin [a technique where a group of miners can obtain revenues in excess of their fair share].

Worked on making sure funds that were stolen could be recovered with Bitcoin Vaults and Bitcoin Covenants.

Worked on Ethereum – noticed The DAO was about to be hacked.

Most recently focusing on Avalanche.

Haipo (via Cindy): It is said Bitcoin Cash (BCH) is too decentralized to add any technical features and doesn’t have a very good governance mechanism. What is your attitude about a fork and do you think it is a good time to fork Bitcoin Cash.

Emin: Big fan of Bitcoin Cash (BCH). It follows in footsteps of Satoshi’s white paper. BTC doing something different, trying second layer scaling, not grounded in Satoshi’s white paper.

Want Bitcoin Cash to succeed. No issue too small for Bitcoin Cash to fracture around. Always something that causes it to fracture. There were a number of proposals that did not receive unanimous support. Issues are more social than technical. Would love to see a governance layer, but the rifts are social not technical. We need leadership to emerge, so decisions can be made. Instead we have deep rifts, deep divides.

Cindy: How did Avalanche get its name?

Emin: From the mechanism of action of the protocol, which creates an unstable equilibrium like being balanced on top of a mountain. Slowly a decision begins to form. Decision starts falling towards one side of the mountain or the other: Alice paid Bob, or Alice paid Charlie. Nodes on one side of the decision gain momentum, growing bigger and bigger. Like an avalanche it becomes unstoppable (finality point).

I’m told its not the best connotation in Chinese, but in English, an avalanche is a powerful event, an awe-inspiring event. Not so much destructive, as awe-inspiring.

Cindy: I know that you are a big blocker and are supportive of Bitcoin Cash. Have you considered implementing Avalanche on Bitcoin Cash? Why create another chain?

Emin: Of course I did, but proof-of-work and Nakamoto Consensus have shortcomings. Nakamoto Consensus is wonderful, and a landmark in distributed systems. An amazing invention. But it has slow finality, lack of scalability, and leaks value from store of value to miners.

Avalanche is the third big breakthrough in distributed systems. Biggest thing to happen since the Nakamoto white paper.

Avalanche is highly scalable, highly flexible. Had to build a new network to show how fast and flexible networks could be.

I’d like to build Bitcoin Cash on Avalanche to show how fast it could be, with quick finality, and make zero-conf transactions much more secure.

Cindy: There are some advantages of proof-of-stake such as low threshold of mining and better transactions per second. We know Ethereum is switching to proof-of-stake [Ethereum 2.0]. Do you think Ethereum will continue to lead the bull market?

Emin: Absolutely, but Ethereum 2.0 is not appearing any time soon. Activity is centered around the Beacon Chain, essentially a meaningless chain that creates randomness, not processing transactions. Ethereum 2.0 constantly delayed, appearing in 2021, nobody suggesting it will be here this year.

When it comes to market, not sure Ethereum 2.0 will deal with core problems. It’s based on sharding, a split into parallel groups. Suspect everybody wants to be on the same shard as MakerDAO. Grave doubts about Ethereum 2.0 roadmap. Do not think sharding is the way to go. Not sure it will improve transactions per second immensely.

We’re looking at how Avalanche can support the Ethereum virtual machine. Avalanche is capable of thousands of transactions per second, finalizing transactions in a second.

Sharding is on order of five or six seconds. Avalanche is superior to Ethereum 2.0. Will it succeed? Don’t know, wish it the best, want it to succeed.

The fastest, best platform is going to be Avalanche, which supports the Ethereum Virtual Machine: byte by byte compatible with the Ethereum VM.

Cindy: I’m giving Bitcoin Cash away to our audience, please countdown to our audience.

Emin: [Counting down for giveaway] Three, two, one, go!

Cindy: You mentioned Avalanche is a real breakthrough. What makes it a real breakthrough? Specific aspects?

Emin: The way it approaches consensus is different than every other protocol. 6,500 transactions per second. Three times faster than Visa. Finality in about a second. Transaction submitted, then it’s as good as six Bitcoin Cash confirmations in about a second.

Avalanche is inclusive. Allows people to participate. Difficult to participate in Bitcoin Cash because you need a mining rig and electricity. With Avalanche, can participate with smaller node requirements.

Avalanche has a different network model. There are different virtual machines. Different subnetworks.

New coins compliant in each jurisdiction. There will be coins for the American market, and coins for the European market subject to European laws. First true multi-jurisdiction network.

Flexibility and speed allow Avalanche to do something nobody else is trying to do. Not trying to compete with the dollar or yuan. Not trying to compete with Ethereum as a world computer.

Avalanche is an asset issuance platform. None of the other systems are good for issuing assets. Assets have been issued on Ethereum and Bitcoin Cash, but that’s all incidental. Avalanche is built from the ground up to issue financial instruments.

Cindy: Haipo agreed the market for tokenization is very big. Question for both of you is how you rank the importance of community, development, and governance for public chains.

Emin: All important, like legs of a table. Table cannot stand without good foundation on all fronts.

Community is absolutely essential for blockchains.

Governance is important. Formal mechanisms for figuring out what community wants and every voice has a chance to be heard. Without governance even good communities can be ruled by loudest voice, mob rule.

Development absolutely crucial but has to happen from multiple fronts. Avalanche has community distributed around the world. Good community of small developers, and also have large companies building on Avalanche.

When a platform has small communities and big companies, it’s in a strong position, and that’s what we’ve been trying to do on Avalanche.

Cindy: Professor Emin, Haipo said he believes technology is not the most important factor. So many say they have great tech but offer a bad user experience. How should infrastructure be built to improve user experience?

Emin: Haipo has great insight. In this space, not that many differentiated user experiences. Haipo is right, user experience comes first and foremost, not tech, not transactions per second.

Until now, a large number of projects were repackaging the same technology. Satoshi’s invention and different flavors on top, but in the end very similar. Copied each other, not that many innovations in blockchains themselves.

Avalanche represents a completely different technological foundation. When you make a chain so fast, it’s a completely different user experience. Click and finalized. Cannot do this on Ethereum or Ethereum 2.o. In Avalanche, it’s almost instant. Completely changes the user experience.

Avalanche has a different network model. Many tokens on top. Asset issuance platform. Will be thousands of assets issued on top. Already multiple virtual machines. There will be different subnetworks.

These systems have to be so easy to use that people interact with them woutout realizing they’re talking to a blockchain. Haipo is right, user experience is what matters. Good tech is what gives you a better user experience.

Cindy: I will tell Haipo how you think highly of him 🙂

Cindy: Paper of Avalanche was first uploaded to IPFS, which is one of the most popular coins this year. What is your attitude toward IPFS?

Emin: Fantastic project. We need decentralized storage solutions to support blockchain projects. Fantastic coupling for any other blockchain project to use IPFS for storing information.

Cindy: What do you think of DeFi? Do you think DeFi will take us to another round of a bull market?

Emin: It will absolutely will, not just in crypto but also in finance. Everything starting in crypto will be innovation you see in Wall Street. Wall Street stagnated. Little innovation in the banking and finance side other than esoteric derivative instruments. Crypto brings a breath of fresh air into the space. Believe it’s going to be transformative. Avalanche supports DeFi needs: compliance, expressivity.

It will not be the case that Wall Street just adopts DeFi. DeFi will grow and grow and grow and become its own thing that is just on the side of the finance world. And as older people grow out of finance, DeFi will replace them.

Cindy: How is Avalanche going to combine with DeFi?

Emin: Avalanche already supports the Ethereal Virtual Machine (EVM). Everything that works on the EVM works on the Contract Chain on Avalanche. We’re talking to Compound, Uniswap, MakerDAO. Spoken to them about migrating functionality to Avalanche.

Talking to large enterprises that want to issue new assets tied to real world goods. Avalanche takes DeFi to the next level.

Finally, working on decentralized exchanges (DEXs). Because of flexibility, Avalanche supports highly performant DEXs. Existing DEXs are slow and behind the market. On Avalanche, can build a real-time DEX. Completely changes approach. After mainnet, plan to build new solutions and show the world how fast DEXs can be. How much better DeFi solutions can be on top of Avalanche.

Cindy: Thank you Professor Emin Gün Sirer, thats all for tonight. Thank you for sharing insights for the audience.

Emin: Thank you so much for having me, for insightful questions, and to the audience.

Cindy: Bye bye, Goodnight!


Denali Incentivized Testnet Recap

AVA Labs published a recap of the Denali Incentivized Testnet, which ended on June 15, 2020.

Denali Testnet - Image
Image by AVA Labs via Medium

More than 1,000 nodes from over 60 countries staked testnet tokens to be validators in the Denali test network.

Participants earned up to 2,000 AVAX tokens for completing three challenges, which included becoming a validator, participating in a network upgrade, and maintaining an operational node for at least 30% of the testnet duration.

Rewards will be distributed after the Avalanche mainnet launch and will be locked for one year. Participants should receive an email with instructions on how to receive their AVAX rewards.

Users created more than 150 assets during the incentivized testnet, along with 16 subnets and 11 blockchains.

The next version of the Avalanche testnet is named Everest.


NFT-Focused Decentralized Exchange Coming to Avalanche

Polyient Games and AVA Labs will partner to build a decentralized exchange (DEX) on Avalanche focused on non-fungible tokens (NFTs).

Avalanche NFT DEX - Image
Image by AVA Labs via Medium

The announcement comes just two days after Kevin Sekniqi, co-founder and COO of AVA Labs, dropped a teaser about an upcoming DEX.

A DEX is a marketplace that allows peer-to-peer trading of assets without a central authority.

Non-fungible tokens are a special type of digital token representing something unique. For example, NFTs can represent property titles, game items, or rare art.

NFTs contrast with currency and utility tokens like AVAX, which are fungible and interchangeable.

On the fun side, CryptoKitties were an early example on Ethereum, with each unique kitty represented by an NFT. Another example is Gods Unchained, a game that uses NFTs for their playing cards.

In the Ethereum ecosystem, marketplaces like OpenSea enable buying and selling of NFTs.

However, congestion on the Ethereum network is hindering the NFT asset class, according to Polyient CEO Brad Robertson. “By building on Avalanche, we are able to leverage a scalable infrastructure,” said Robertson.

The recently released AVAX Wallet supports non-fungible tokens in addition to AVAX and other other fungible tokens.

The Polyient Games DEX will use PGFK Particles (XPGP), a utility token that represents 0.001 Polyient Games Founder’s Keys (PGFK). The PGFK token gives membership and rewards in the Polyient Games ecosystem. The DEX will include an AVAX-XPGP market.

A launch date for the DEX was not specified, but the Avalanche mainnet is expected by the end of August.


Emin Gün Sirer Hints at DeFi, Identity Management, Insurance, New Digital Assets

In a podcast with Blockchain Summit Latam, AVA Labs CEO Emin Gün Sirer gave a glimpse of exciting things coming up in the Avalanche ecosystem.

Blockchain Summit Latam with Emin Gün Sirer - Image
Image by Blockchain Summit Latam via Twitter

Explaining that he doesn’t want to steal his own thunder, Sirer provided a high level overview of what to expect:

Decentralized Finance (DeFi)

A lot of the DeFi goodness that people see and love is going to be much better on Avalanche. That’s why a lot of the DeFi groups that we are talking to are very excited, because they want scale. They want security and scale, and we’re going to be giving them exactly that.

Emin Gün Sirer

In related news, the COO of AVA Labs recently discussed an upcoming decentralized exchange (DEX) on Avalanche.

Identity Management

There are a bunch of things that people have talked a lot about, but have done very little on. Identity management is one of them. There’s a bunch of areas where I see not that much action, and there should be better action. So, we’re going to be going into these areas where I see a shortage of people who know what they’re doing and shortage of people who are executing well.

Emin Gün Sirer

Insurance in Mexico

I’m excited about what is to come over the next year or so in those areas. Especially in the insurance area. We’re actually working with a team that is focusing in Mexico and we’re very delighted, we’re just delighted to see the results that might come out of that. I’m not at liberty to say much more than that, what kind of insurance, where, what, you know, but we’re excited about that.

Emin Gün Sirer

New Digital Assets

There will be some innovative new assets that are in a regulatory fashion very good for blockchain. That the regulators are not, you know, on top of. They’re just brand new assets. And they’re very well suited to trading online. And the regulatory environment is very good for them to be offered in blockchain format. I’m excited for those. We’ll see the introduction of some of these this fall.

Emin Gün Sirer

Other Topics

In the podcast, Sirer also gave an overview of his background and work in peer-to-peer systems. He covered the history of consensus algorithms, Bitcoin, and his thoughts on Ethereum 2.0.

For more, listen to the full podcast by Blockchain Summit Latam.


Avalanche Decentralized Exchange Teaser

Kevin Sekniqi, co-founder and COO of AVA Labs, dropped a teaser about an upcoming decentralized exchange (DEX) on Avalanche:

The DEX to come on Avalanche is going to be glorious. We’re not there yet, but it’s unlike anything else in the space.

Sekniqi went on to say that he is “super excited about it” and “AVAX will be central to the operation.”

At the beginning of July, AVA Labs announced an Avalanche-X grant to build a DEX on Avalanche.

DEX’s are marketplaces that allow peer-to-peer trading of assets without a central authority. Existing examples on Ethereum include Uniswap and 0x.


Avalanche Telegram AMA Transcript

Last week, AVA Report posted a recap of the most interesting questions and answers from the Avalanche (AMA) event held on July 24.

Today, AVA Labs posted a full transcript of the Telegram “Ask Me Anything” session for those that missed it.


IOSG Ventures Announces Strategic Partnership with Avalanche

IOSG Ventures announced an investment into Avalanche and the formation of a strategic partnership.

IOSG Ventures Partnership - Image
Image by IOSG Ventures via Medium

According to the announcement, the partnership will focus on the ecosystem in China:

IOSG Ventures is looking forward to working closely with the AVA Labs team in nurturing partnerships and collaborations with businesses in China as well as a bold and innovative developer community.

An AVA Labs team member provided additional details, saying that IOSG Ventures is “going to help us with building out the Avalanche Ecosystem in China, i.e. getting high quality Dapps, enterprises to build on avalanche.”

The IOSG Ventures investment came via participation in a previous sale. Prior to the public sale on July 15, there was a private sale in May 2020 which raised $12 million, and a seed sale in February 2019 which raised $6 million.

Founded in 2017, IOSG Ventures is a venture capital fund focused on open finance and decentralized protocols. They have over 60 investments including Polkadot, Blockstack, and now Avalanche.


July 24 Avalanche AMA Recap

AVA Labs hosted an Avalanche “Ask Me Anything” (AMA) event on Telegram on Friday, July 24 from 2 p.m. to 3 p.m. EDT.

Avalanche AMA - Image
Image by AVA Labs via Telegram

These are some of the most interesting questions and answers from the event:

What is the state/status of ZKsnarks and other privacy tools for Avalanche?

Tyler Smith: We will be focusing more on privacy features after we get mainnet out.

Our multi-chain model will let us try a variety of approaches, for example on the X-chain we could easily support CoinJoin-style privacy protocols while also experimenting with ZK proof-based privacy schemes on a new chains.

I’m also looking forward to playing with SNARKs and protocols like Tornado on the Ethereum-compatible C-Chain.

If the fees are going to be burnt, which will be the incentive to the miners once all avax have been mined?

Phillip Liu: At some point, the Avalanche Network will have to be sustained by fees imo (tho it will take quite a few years before this becomes an issue).

Burning fees and reintroducing them via minting, in some ways is equivalent to rewarding fees to stakers. The nice thing about Avalanche consensus is that it’s super lightweight and efficient. Last time I did some calculations, it costs 5000x less to run the Avalanche network compared to Bitcoin. From an economic perspective, Avalanche is one of the most sustainable networks in existence

What is your biggest worry?

Hell Michigan: I think staking delegation has risks associated with it that are hard to predict.

Delegation of stake puts a lot of external social factors into a protocol which would ideally not deal with those. Unfortunately, it’s also the best means to remove barriers to entry for low-volume holders and to really give a broader sense of community.

I do worry of its long term impact, if not the immediate impact. My gut is that we can see this coming a mile away and intervene as a community before it becomes an issue if such an issue were to pop up.

What are your plans to capture the business sector and digitize the assets of real businesses in the Avalanche network?

Lydia Chiu: Many of the differentiating capabilities of Avalanche address a lot of key concerns that enterprises have had with using decentralized networks as a whole.

To date, enterprises have been forced to choose between public or private blockchains but Avalanche can enable both because of its flexible network architecture. When combined with what we hope will be a smooth user experience, businesses adopting Avalanche should just be a natural evolution.

To that end, we are also speaking with many tentpole companies in their respective industries to establish compelling case studies for others. Stay tuned on this front – we’ll have a lot more exciting announcements to come!

How does Avalanche deal with the rich-get-richer-problem? Is there some mechanism like the one Cardano has, which leads to less rewards for rich stakers?

Phillip Liu: In Avalanche, staking rewards are proportional to amount staked. The nice thing about the reward mechanism in Avalanche is that it decreases the variance of rewards for all participants. We therefore do not need the equivalent of mining pools (staking pools?) in Avalanche. So everyone can run a node!

Are there any connection about team rocket and satoshi?

Phillip Liu: Interestingly enough, Satoshi is the name of the main character in the Japanese version of Pokemon (English equivalent: Ash Ketchum), and Team Rocket, as we all know, are the antagonists in the story. Maybe there is some connection??? Not sure tho 😁

NFTs usually build as erc721 tokens. However, you have your own blockchain, will you use common method like of Oxcert plug and play framework to create awesome NFT faster or thinking a new ways to build it in a more unique and smooth method?

Hell Michigan: We built NFTs directly into the transaction format of our AVM (X-Chain) itself. It’s actually closer to EIP-1155 (Collectible NFTs) than ERC 721 in design. EIP-1155 is a generalization over ERC721 from a design standpoint anyway.

We do not need to use external NFT frameworks, but if you want to build your own VM which supports those NFT frameworks, by all means write it up!

How did you solve the problem of network decentralization? What are the system requirements?

Stephen Buttolph: The Avalanche network utilizes a new family of consensus algorithms that remove bottlenecks of other existing systems.

Specifically, most other forms of PoS systems utilize consensus algorithms that incur an amount of work that is at least proportional to the number of nodes in the system. In some of these systems the factor can be more than O(n), sometimes O(n^2) or even O(n^3).

However, in Avalanche, the amount of work to achieve consensus is essentially independent of the number of nodes in the network. Avalanche is very similar to bitcoin style PoW with this respect.

The reason why PoW systems are still relatively centralized is because of the requirement to use mining pools to reduce reward variance. However, because Avalanche utilizes a new PoS model that doesn’t relate to vertex issuance this incentive doesn’t exist. This is what gives Avalanche the ability to be extremely decentralized.

As for the system requirements, these are currently listed in our docs: You can start running a node today on the Denali testnet 🙂

I’ve seen on Denali testnet that Africa was not represented; there were any node hold in Africa. Is it a problem for you as africans didn’t participate?

Hell Michigan: It’s funny but we know for certain that representatives exist in the African continent. The issue here, I think, is that their IP addresses weren’t on mainland Africa for whatever reason.

One of our most active community members made a map of nodes and he himself was running nodes as a Nigerian. Check out his work here!

Crypto Squanch: We are actually now expanding our community operations also in Africa. Stay tuned.

What are your thoughts on current state of Defi market? Do you think it will sustain or do you thing its just another bubble?

Phillip Liu: There are some genuinely interesting ideas in the defi space. AMMs are quite an elegant solution to the problems of hosting an exchange and orderbooks on DLTs.

However, clearly stuff like “yield farming” is unsustainable. I feel like the current defi situation is a rite of passage for all interesting ideas in the space. It starts with a series of revolutionary idea, followed by hype, but after the hype cools off, back to building.

Being someone who got into Blockchain space a few years back and observing multiple bubbles but no concrete adoption I sometimes lose my faith and I am sure there are many other like me. What can we expect from Avalanche to do things differently How do we get masses on board?

Patrick Sutton: To me, education and usability have been two of the biggest obstacles holding back real adoption for these networks. Fortunately, there’s been massive leaps on the education and awareness front (in 2014 it was hard to get anyone in my family to listen to me blabber about bitcoin and blockchains, but last holidays it was all anyone wanted to talk about).

On the usability side, that includes everything from network congestion to the user experience on the front-end. The next waves of users have to have more seamless access to dapps, so they can focus on what they are trying to accomplish, and less on the “how” its possible in the backend (like how we don’t think of internet protocols when surfing the web – are people still saying surfing the web?).

We’ve learned from these friction points, and are attacking each one 💪

As avalanche is using pruning else the number of transactions would result in tens of TB of data per year, what is the actual space consumption that was perhaps observed during Denali with over 1000 validators? Is it right to assume that the required space will be constant (minimal) over the coming months and years, or does the architecture (of Avalanche/Snow family) require a steady increase in disk space consumption (albeit small)?

Stephen Buttolph: Avalanche does not require any increase in disk space. The size of the state that is used by nodes is defined by what each VM defines as its current state.

We are currently working on implementing the pruning system right now. So, currently when a node enters into the network it performs a full sync of the entire history of the network. Once pruning is introduced the synced state (by default) will only be a function of the current state of the network as defined by the VMs.

With this 3rd generation protocol, does avalanche blockchain and cryptocurrency eco system pioneer radical change?

Ted Yin: Great question about the future. Technology-wise, our first intention throughout the entire research of Avalanche was to decouple different crucial components/algorithms that one “blockchain” system must have.

We know Bitcoin has a very monolithic design (as it never mentions the terms of “Sybil prevention”/“BFT consensus”, etc.). But this doesn’t necessarily mean the entire story of blockchain platforms is just like a mixed bag of confusing mechanisms and algorithms.

In fact, we’ve been trying our best to break down the main functionality one wants from such systems, and to address each one of them with our best knowledge in distributed systems/security.

If you look at the white paper, you’ll realize that the X-Chain (“Avalanche” in the paper) makes use of the property that normal payment transactions do not have to be fully ordered for most of the time and that allows us to apply the Snow (gossip-based samping) protocol idea very effectively to best avoid its shortcomings.

Overall the shift to more systematic approach to a blockchain system changes the way we think about building this kind of infrastructure, and will reflect in change in the ecosystem in a good way, as the consequence.

Time to the market is extremely important. It is clear that other blockchains has a time advantage and gain larger market share. How will Avalanche deal with this apart from relying on its technologicaly advanced blockchain architecture?

Gabriel Cardona: AVA Labs is a world-class team of experts in computer science, economics, finance, and law.

We’re very much in “startup mode” and are laser focused on delivering extremely high quality products at scale and velocity. We intend to leverage domain-expertise, industry best-practices, community building and lots of hard work to remain competitive and innovative.

Will AVAX token also be  a governance token? What are requirements for participating in governance?

Gabriel Cardona: Yes, $AVAX will be a governance token. For staking the requirements are to lock up at least 2000 $AVAX for between 2–52 weeks. More info: Section 2 Governance

How will Avalanche prevent your Blockchain from getting a very big size?

Hell Michigan: So the X-Chain and the P-Chain are both custom VMs written by our team. In those systems we will be actively and aggressively pruning the state to keep up with state growth.

The C-Chain is, unfortunately, going to suffer the same issues that Geth does in terms of state growth. We have our own custom WASM VM in the works which could make more leaner/pruneable smart contracts someday. Right now, though, the plan is aggressive pruning on the X-Chain and P-Chain.

A cool thing about our explorer is that it’s built on Kafka. This means it scales horizontally and provides petabyte-level of hash-linked verifiable storage of the accepted transaction stream.

In essence, if you run our explorer backend, you’re running an archival node that scales with the data growth and has full replay capability. Check out that repo here and mad props to @tcrypt25519 for his work on that:

Does COVID-19 situation affect the pacing of AVAX development?

Jay Kurahashi-Sofue: The situation really has no effect on the Ava Labs team and the development of Avalanche.

As most of you probably know, the blockchain industry has been fairly forward with remote-friendly work. Since we’ve already been accustomed to remote work, the transition was very easy for us. Although many of us New Yorkers are patiently waiting for the day this all returns back to normal 🙂

How are you making quiescent possible?

Stephen Buttolph: Avalanche consensus only requires voting while there are outstanding decisions to be made. This means that if there are no transactions being issued to the network, then no nodes will be performing queries.

Nodes do still perform some background gossiping of peers + the accepted frontier to make sure that the network is remaining healthy, but consensus only need to happen when there are pending decisions to be made.

How are you integrating both permissioned and permissionless deployments in AVAX?

Stephen Buttolph: Currently the default subnet is the only permissionless subnet on the Avalanche platform. It is possible to create your own permissioned subnets on the Avalanche platform by registering on the P-chain.

We will be introducing an additional mechanism to implement permissionless blockchains, based on the blockchains internal ruleset.

How are you solving this big thing of quantum resistant virtual machine?

Stephen Buttolph: Avalanche only requires a very vague knowledge of the structure of the VM that it is performing operations on. It is entirely possible to implement quantum safe signatures into a VM (or Fx, Feature Extension).

In fact it is possible to implement privacy features into VMs, which I think is going to be a killer feature of our VM architecture.

If someone is an expert at cryptography and they have a great idea for a new VM, but they aren’t experts in creating a BFT consensus system, Avalanche is a great place for them to deploy their new ideas.

Any plans to further upgrade consesus protocols?

Stephen Buttolph: We are constantly improving and extending our protocols. One of the features on our roadmap is implementing Frosty consensus, which is an extension of Snowman.

What can you say about the investment of Ethereum Genesis on AVAX sales? Does it mean Vitalik favors your project? Some say, AVAX could beat the eth 2.0? Any comment with that?

Patrick Sutton: For many people within the community – myself included – support from an early Ethereum adopter is added validation of the technology, team, and vision behind Avalanche. I wouldn’t say that implies any connection to Vitalik, however 🙂

What is the expected TPS for the C chain?

Hell Michigan: ~200tps but the limiting factor is Geth and the EVM. We can improve this.

Would the AVAX network support the migration of the Ethereum network?

Gabriel Cardona: Avalanche’s C-Chain is an instance of the evm with Snowman consensus and is 100% backward-compatible with existing Ethereum developer tooling including metamask, truffle, remix and more. Our team is happy to help developers migrate apps to the Avalanche ecosystem. Please join us on telegram or discord.

More info:

Will it be possible to stake AVAX with a single click, as was done now to open a wallet with an existing google account?

Gabriel Cardona: Yes, this will be supported soon. Our team is adding delegation functionality to avalanche.js and to the web wallet.

Jay Kurahashi-Sofue: We are actively working with Staking as a Service providers to ensure that there are easier options for staking AVAX–for those who are not as technically savvy.

How difficult it is for a solidity dev to switch their Dapp from Ethereum or Eos to Avalanche? What incentives do they have for doing it?

Jay Kurahashi-Sofue: This is not difficult at all. The Contract Chain (C-Chain) already has the Ethereum VM running on it. Our focus is to improve interoperability with other chains. The incentive for doing so is a better experience overall: faster transaction speeds, lower fees, better performance overall.

Avalanche integrated Google to its wallet platform, how is this different from using a centralized wallet?

Stephen Buttolph: The Avalanche wallet supports using Google as a way to access your wallet. Using this functionality is very similar to having Google manage a centralized wallet. If someone isn’t comfortable with Google managing their wallet, they can use the keystore files that they are able to store on the wallet.

When will the Denali Incentivized Testnet rewards be distributed?

Jay Kurahashi-Sofue: Denali rewards will be distributed after mainnet launch. More details on Denali recap will be out in the coming weeks.

How is it working with Emin Gün Sirer ? He’s looking very inspired and passionate about Avalanche and crypto in general.

Patrick Sutton: Inspired and passionate are excellent words to describe Emin, as well as the whole Avalanche team. I’ve worked with a lot of projects and companies in our space, and I’ve never enjoyed solving big challenges as much as I do with our team.

I read above that Geth and the EVM are the bottlenck on the C-chain (~200 tps). Do you have any idea of what throughput could be achieved on a fully-ordered chain with a more efficient VM / state transition code? I.e. at what scale might Avalanche (snow?) itself become the bottleneck?

Hell Michigan: @StephenTechSupport has run benchmarks on snowman chains and they are comparable in TPS to our DAG.

We have been reading several variations of POS approval mechanisms instead of PoW on next-generation blockchain networks for several years. But you’re proposing an entirely new approach and saying, “PoS is not a consensus mechanism!” Can you explain this confusion on behalf of many of my friends?

Stephen Buttolph: I think the main confusion stems from PoW being used as both a Sybil control mechanism and as a Consensus mechanism. At the end of the day, neither of these terms (PoW or PoS) actually describe a consensus mechanism.

PoW implies that a node is able to prove that it put in a certain amount of attempts hashing on an object. PoS implies that a node has locked up some amount of stake.

PoW can be used for DoS protection, without being used as consensus. Similarly PoS can be used for the same purpose. This is primarily solving the Sybil problem.

However, these processes don’t really explain the full consensus process. In Bitcoin, Nakamoto consensus is used to “follow the longest chain”. Where new blocks are added slowly, using PoW to avoid a Sybil attack.

Early PoS models also used Nakamoto consensus by using VRFs.

But in reality, Sybil control is a separate problem from consensus. The Avalanche platform doesn’t use Nakamoto consensus, it uses Avalanche consensus. To protect against Sybil attacks, it utilizes PoS.

How will you integrate blockchain software designed in very different software languages into the Avalanche / AVAX network?

Stephen Buttolph: We currently have the ability to run VMs in separate processes over a gRPC server. This enables multiple languages to be used when implementing VMs.